بایگانی‌های oxygen - dawnbreeze

Air Liquide and Linde agree to unprecedented oxygen cooperation

Unitaid and the Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) have in the last 12 hours announced unprecedented agreements with Air Liquide and Linde, respectively, for improved access to medical oxygen.

A major development for both society and the industrial gases industry, the agreements provide a pathway to increased access to medical oxygen in low and middle-income countries during the continuing Covid-19 pandemic.

The agreements are made in the form of a non-binding Memoranda of Understanding (MoU) and have been entered into on a non-exclusive basis; agreements with other medical oxygen suppliers are still being pursued, gasworld understands.

The announcement comes following intense engagement with the world’s major oxygen suppliers by the Covid-19 Oxygen Emergency Taskforce, a group of partners led by Unitaid and Wellcome under the ACT-Accelerator Therapeutics pillar.

The task force also includes the WHO and the biomedical consortium it coordinates, as well as Unicef, The Global Fund, the World Bank, UNOPS, the Every Breath Counts coalition, CHAI, PATH, Save the Children, The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and Access to Medicine Foundation. gasworld’s Publisher and CEO John Raquet was also recognised for his contributions to the cause in a post from Every Breath Counts coalition lead, Leith Greenslade.

The task force has been working together over the past four months to address the global oxygen crisis, building on the strong track record of the agencies involved. This unprecedented collaboration with industry aims to overcome fundamental issues such as unstable funding commitments and insufficient infrastructure, which have limited the availability of medical oxygen.

Medical oxygen shortages around the world have been a tragic feature of the pandemic, impacting the poorest countries disproportionately. These access difficulties were entrenched in many parts of the world before Covid-19, and have been exacerbated by the pandemic, putting strain on fragile health systems and resulting in preventable deaths.

Estimates from PATH, a global non-profit organisation for improving public health, suggest that around one million critically ill Covid-19 patients in low and middle-income countries need 2.2 million oxygen cylinders (15.1 million cubic metres) per day at the moment.

There are ‘concerning surges’ reported in several countries in Africa, Latin America and South-East Asia.


Air Liquide, Linde recognised in ‘pioneering’ agreements


Carl Bildt, WHO Special Envoy for the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator (ACT-A) and former Prime Minister of Sweden, described the agreements as ‘pioneering’ and urgently needed to save lives, while both Unitaid and CHAI welcomed the commitments from Air Liquide and Linde and applauded their involvement.

Zachary Katz, Vice-President of Essential Medicines at CHAI, said, “These agreements pave the way for wider use of medical oxygen at a time when the world continues to suffer acute shortages. We applaud Air Liquide and Linde and look forward to working together to expand access to oxygen to those most in need.”

Jean-Marc de Royere, Senior Vice-President and member of the Air Liquide Group Executive Committee in charge of social programmes, reflected, “Striving to improve oxygen access in LMICs is an integral part of our sustainable development commitments announced in March 2021. Today’s announcement is also in line with Air Liquide teams’ mobilisation since the beginning of the pandemic in the countries where the group operates.”

“Leveraging on its technical expertise and know-how, the group will work along with Unitaid and CHAI, contributing to solutions to increase oxygen access in LMICs countries where demand is high and operational conditions are challenging.”

Sanjiv Lamba, Chief Operating Officer at Linde, added, “The Covid-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of access to healthcare for all. Linde’s employees stepped up in these extraordinary times to produce and deliver medical oxygen, playing a critical role in supporting healthcare systems across the world. All these efforts will be in vain if we cannot work together to improve access to medical oxygen in low and moderate-income countries, overcoming the many challenges.”

“Linde is proud to partner with Unitaid and the Clinton Health Access Initiative and we look forward to working together to increase access to oxygen on a fair and equitable basis.”

Source: gasworld.com

What is oxygen?

  • Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, gaseous element that supports human life, and It’s combustible, It makes 1/5 of the atmosphere.
  • (%20.95 by volume of the atmosphere and %32.5 by weight of atmosphere) Oxygen at low temperature(0 -184 C), clear, the very light blue liquid that is slightly heavier than water
  • All elements, except neutral gases, combine with oxygen and create The oxides form. Oxygen is non-flammable but greatly intensifies the combustion process

Available oxygen grades:

% 99.9999,% 99.9995,% 99.999,% 99.995,% 99.6

Tanks and maintenance:

  • Oxygen can be charged in the gas form and under pressure in cylinders as well as in trailer tubes.
  • Liquid oxygen is transported and stored in portable flasks and cryogenic tanks.

Compatible and incompatible materials:

  • Gaseous oxygen is non-corrosive and can be used in systems made of ordinary metals. At the temperature of oxygen liquefaction, carbon steels and steel alloys lose their malleability and they aren’t suitable for exposure to oxygen.
  • Metals and alloys are suitable for exposure to oxygen at liquid temperatures include: stainless steel (eg 316,304), nickel and chromium alloys, nickel, Monel 400, copper brass, bronze, and austenitic aluminum alloys.
  • Oxygen contact systems and piping must be free of any combustible materials, grease or oil.
Molecular Weight 31.9988
steam pressure 100 K. Pa @ -183.15 0C
Gas density 1.326 Kg/m3 @ 21.1 0C and 1 atm
The latent heat of evaporation at the boiling point 213 KJ/Kg
Special heat capacity CP=0.9192 KJ/Kg.0C

CV=0.6577 KJ/Kg.0C


Critical temperature -118.60C
Critical pressure 5043 KPa(a)
Ability to dissolve in water 0.0489 vol.(gas)/Vol.(Water) at 00C and 1 atm
Explosion / ignition range in air Non Flammable

Material Compatibility of OXYGEN





StainLess Steel











Viton® Buna-N Neoprene Polyurethane





S – Satisfactory for use with the intended gas
C – Conditional. May be incompatible under some circumstances or conditions Contact your Praxair representative for additional information
U – Unsatisfactory for use with the intended gas
I – Insufficient data available to determine compatibility with the intended gas
O – All nonmetalic, even those considered compatible, may be ignitable in oxygen enriched environments or in other oxidizing gases. Successful
use depends upon oxygen purity, pressure, temperature, cleanliness and elimination of ignition mechanisms. Please contact your Praxair
Representative for additional information

Classification of dangerous Products:

Dangerous Products Transport Information:


UN 1072 UN 1072 UN 1072 UN NUMBER
Oxygen, compressed Oxygen, compressed Oxygen, compressed UN SHIPPING NAME

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